The energy transition can be described as a double challenge: gradually ending the use of certain energies (fossil fuel and even nuclear energy) and developing renewable energies. At the same time, this must be accompanied by a reduction in energy consumption.
Since 1997, with the Kyoto Protocol, various international, European and national agreements have been agreed in order to reduce our energy consumption. At the European level, an energy-climate plan has been adopted by the European Commission, which sets forth the following 3 goals to be completed by 2030:
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% (based on 1990 levels);
Increase the share of renewable energies to, at least, 27%;
Improve energy efficiency by at least 27%.
In order to achieve this goal of reducing GHG emissions, industries included in the CO2 emissions trading scheme must reduce their emissions by 43% and other industries by 30%, based on their 2005 emissions.